PDF | Thinkers, even before Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, contemplated He offers his Fourth Political Theory as a direct response to the ills. PDF | The Oxford Roundtable of July 29 - August 1, focused on the themes Remarkable of the Fourth Political Theory is its emphasis on. Alexander Dugin All the political systems of the modern age have been the products of three distinct ideologies: the first, and oldest, is liberal democracy; the .

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Alexander Dugin-Fourth Political - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. The Fourth Political Theory by Alexander Dugin - Ebook download as ePub . epub), Text File .txt) or read book online. Political Theoury. In the post-Soviet period, communism went through several stages in our society. First, after the fall of the USSR, there were Marxist circles that still had inertia.

Dugin sees Russia to be the leading nation in the Eurasian Union and has founded the International Eurasia Movement to make that happen. What is Eurasia? Dugin thinks the Soviet Union just took over the boundaries of a historical union of people and ethnicities that was there from the Russian Empire.

As Russia is a country of a unique culture and destiny, it is its mission to create a center of power that has elements of both Europe and Asia, the two continents straddled by the expansive country. These countries were created in their present borders artificially only after the collapse of USSR and as the result of such collapse. These maritime, liberal nations value individuality and market forces.

Eurasia, on the other hand, represents the conservative philosophy of land-locked continentalism, which according to Eurasians, has among its values a hierarchical structure, law and order, traditionalism and religion.

Thus we have Atlantis vs Eurasia. In fact, Dugin claims all history can be viewed as a battle between maritime and land-based nations. The fact that he is a billionaire doesn't matter. He is different. All content of Modernity - is Satanism and degeneration. Nothing is worth, everything is to be cleansed off.

The Modernity is absolutely wrong -- science, values, philosophy, art, society, modes, patterns, "truths", understanding of Being, time and space. All is dead with Modernity. So it should end. And, finally, fascism is the third political theory.

Laying claim to its interpretation of the soul of modernity many researchers, in particular Hannah Arendt, rightly see totalitarianism as one of the political forms of modernity [2] fascism turned together also to the ideas and symbols of traditional society.

In some instances this resulted in eclecticism; in others, in the striving of conservatives to head a revolution rather than resisting it and bringing society into the opposite direction Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, D.

Merezhkovsky, etc.

The Fourth Political Theory: book

Fascism appeared after the other major political theories and disappeared before them. The alliance of the first political theory and the second political theory and the suicidal geopolitical calculations of Hitler defeated it at take-off. The third political theory died a violent death, not having seen old age and natural decomposition in contrast to the USSR.

Fascism, having disappeared, freed up space for a battle of the first political theory with the second. In the first political theory liberalism defeated the second socialism.

That was the decline of world communism. And so, at the end of the 20 th century, of the three political theories capable of mobilizing many millions of masses in all areas of the planet, only one remained — liberalism. It happened that the victory of liberalism the first political theory coincided with its end. But this paradox is only apparent. Liberalism initially showed itself forth as an ideology; not as dogmatic as Marxism, but no less philosophical, well built and precise.

It was ideologically opposed to Marxism and fascism, waging with them not only a technological war for survival, but also defending its right to a monopolistic formation of the way of the future. While other concurrent ideologies were alive, liberalism remained and grew stronger particularly as an ideology; that is, a totality of ideas, opinions, and projects peculiar to a historical subject.

Each of the three political theories had its own subject. The subject of communism was the class; the subject of fascism was the State in the Italian fascism of Mussolini or the race in Hitler's National-Socialism. While the ideological fight had formal antagonists, entire narodi [3] and societies at least theoretically could select which subject to address themselves to; to the class-based, the racial Statist , or the individual. The victory of liberalism answered that question: And soon appears the phenomenon of globalization, the model of a post-industrial society, the beginning of the epoch of post-modernity.

From now on the individual subject is no more the result of a choice but some kind of compulsory given. Mankind, composed of individuals, is naturally drawn to universalism, becomes global and integrated. The new level of technological development allows people to reach independence from the class structures of industrial societies post-industrialism. At this stage liberalism stops being the first political theory, but becomes the only political practice. Having won, liberalism disappears, transforming into something entirely different: And so the start of the 21 st century coincides with the moment of the end of ideology, of all three ideologies.

They all had various endings: But in any case in that state in which the three political theories existed during the 20 th century they are no longer available, suitable or relevant. They explain nothing and do not help us understand what's happening or to respond to the global challenge.

From this statement there follows the necessity of moving to a Fourth Political Theory.

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The Fourth Political Theory will not happen by itself. It might appear, but it might not. The premise of its appearing is disagreement: The status quo and inertia presuppose no political theories at all. All political decisions are replaced by technological ones.

Instead of politicians, who make historical decisions, come managers and technicians, optimizing the logistics of administrative leadership.

Masses of people are compared to the mass of individual objects.

Thus, the post-liberal reality more precisely, virtuality, more and more displacing reality from itself leads straight to the abolition of politics. This is not entirely so. In the epoch of post-modernity, liberalism is transposed from the sphere of the subject to the sphere of the object. This, seen in perspective, will amount to the complete replacement of reality with virtuality.

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The Fourth Political Theory is conceived of as an alternative to Post-Liberalism; not like an ideological attitude in relation to another ideological attitude, but like an idea set against material, like the possible, coming into conflict with the actual, like a not yet existing or being undertaken assault against the already existing.

The end of fascism, as well as the end of communism, was not simply an accidental misunderstanding, but the expression of the clear logic of history. That means that the war with the post-modern metamorphosis of liberalism in the form of post-modernism and globalism must be qualitatively different, must be based on different principles and must offer new strategies. Moreover, the starting point of this ideology — the possible one, but not guaranteed, not fated, not predetermined; issuing from the free will of man, from his soul, but not from impersonal historical processes — is precisely a rejection of the very essence of post-modernity.

However, this essence as with the discovery of the earlier, unknown, hidden motives of Modernity itself, which so fully realized its content that it drained its inner possibilities and went over into a routine of the ironic recycling of prior stages is something entirely new, previously unknown, and only intuitively and in part guessed at during the earlier stages of ideological history and the ideological struggle.

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If the Third Political Theory criticized capitalism from the right, and the Second from the left, then in the new stage this old political topography no longer exists: There are only two positions: Both one and the other are global.

The Fourth Political Theory is concerned with the new rebirth of the old enemy.

It disputes liberalism as did the Second and Third Political Theories of old, but it disputes it in a new condition. The end of history could theoretically have been a different one: But since it turned out to be liberal, then any appeals to modernity and its variants, which in one or another degree the representatives of the Second mostly and Third political theories urged, lose their relevance. They lost the battle for modernity the liberals won that. Therefore the theme of modernity as, by the way, of modernization , is no longer the topic of the day.

Now begins the battle for post-modernity. And it is here that new perspectives open up for the Fourth Political Theory. That post-modernity, which today is realized in practice post-liberal post-modernity , itself annuls the strict logic of modernity — after the goal has been reached, the steps toward it lose their meaning.

The pressure of the ideological corpus becomes less harsh. New holes are appearing in the fabric of post-modern reality.

Against the straightforward ideological alternatives, liberalism worked out perfectly functioning means on which its victory was based. But precisely that carries in itself the greatest risk for liberalism. It is necessary only to find these new points of danger for the new global system, to decipher the access codes, to break the system.

At least, to try. The network society can give something even to its convinced opponents. In any case it is necessary, first of all, to understand Post-modernity and the new situation not less deeply than Marx understood the structure of industrial capitalism.

From that one can make a few practical inferences relating to the structure of the Fourth Political Theory. The second and third political theories positioned themselves as contenders for the expression of the soul of modernity. And these contentions fell to pieces.

Liberalism is the broad, architectonic worldview that hinges on several assumptions the challenging of which will entail a drone strike.

Fourth Political Theory

It is these individuals, acting alone but taken as a whole, who form the circle of liberal action. Lacking a telos by definition, liberalism is hard-pressed to explain what we have freedom for. Dasein is a way to overcome the subject-object duality. All societies must accept liberalism in its current manifestation. What if you don't want to? Well, if you don't have natural resources you are probably okay.Frances Nethercott.

Dugin foresees that the Fourth Political Theory will use the tools and concepts of modernity against itself, to bring about a return of cultural diversity against commercialisation, as well as the traditional worldview of all the peoples of the world — albeit within an entirely new context.

Alex Taek-Gwang Lee. OK, close. Yet, nothing stops us from rethinking the very fact of their failure as something positive, their vices recast as virtues. Ethnos and society — In this monograph the main foreign and Russian sources and schools that influenced the establishment of ethnosociology as an independent and original scientific discipline are studied.

To ensure this one will succeed, we have decreased the target amount, and also decreased the time-frame from 30 to 7 days. See also A.