SCOTT McCLOUD. LETTERING Copyright. © by Scott McCloud. UNDERSTANDING COMICS IS ATRADEMARK OF SCOTT McCLOUD. All RIGHTS. I love you madly. Let's take tomorrow off. San Diego ' Thanks also to the numerous pro- fessionals who have lent their support and. C2 Eolo. Scott McCloud. by Scott McCloud. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever.
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COMICS - Scott McCloud - Understanding Comics - The Invisible Art - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. с) by Scott McCloud. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproducedinany manner whatsoever. Understanding Comics (The Invisible Art) By Scott McCloud. Ricardo Abdul. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the .
The cloud metaphor is replacing the desktop model; it remains to be seen how many of the common desktop icons file, file folder, trashcan, inbox, filing cabinet find a place in this new metaphor.
Brand icons for commercial software[ edit ] A further type of computer icon is more related to the brand identity of the software programs available on the computer system. These brand icons are bundled with their product and installed on a system with the software.
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They function in the same way as the hyperlink icons described above, representing functionality accessible on the system and providing links to either a software program or data file. Over and beyond this, they act as a company identifier and advertiser for the software or company. To regulate the use of these brand icons, they are trademark registered and are considered part of the company intellectual property.
In closed systems such as iOS and Android , the use of icons is to a degree regulated or guided  to create a sense of consistency in the UI.
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Overlay icons[ edit ] On some GUI systems e. Windows , on an icon which represents an object e. For instance, the subsystem for locking files can add a "padlock" overlay icon on an icon which represents a file in order to indicate that the file is locked.
Placement and spacing[ edit ] In order to display the number of icons representing the growing complexity offered on a device, different systems have come up with different solutions for screen space management.
The computer monitor continues to display primary icons on the main page or desktop, allowing easy and quick access to the most commonly used functions for a user.
This screen space also invites almost immediate user customization, as the user adds favourite icons to the screen and groups related icons together on the screen. Secondary icons of system programs are also displayed on the task bar or the system dock.
These secondary icons do not provide a link like the primary icons, instead, they are used to show availability of a tool or file on the system. In response, mobile devices have introduced, among other visual devices, scrolling screen displays and selectable tabs displaying groups of related icons. Even with these evolving display systems, the icons themselves remain relatively constant in both appearance and function.
Above all, the icon itself must remain clearly identifiable on the display screen regardless of its position and size. Programs might display their icon not only as a desktop hyperlink, but also in the program title bar, on the Start menu, in the Microsoft tray or the Apple dock.
In each of these locations, the primary purpose is to identify and advertise the program and functionality available.
This need for recognition in turn sets specific design restrictions on effective computer icons. Design[ edit ] An example of computer icon set design: Nuvola icons come in six different sizes In order to maintain consistency in the look of a device, OS manufacturers offer detailed guidelines for the development and use of icons on their systems. The system icons currently in use have typically gone through widespread international acceptance and understandability testing. Icon design factors have also been the topic for extensive usability studies.
The design itself involves a high level of skill in combining an attractive graphic design with the required usability features.
Its shape should be simple with clean lines, without too much detailing in the design. Together with the other design details, the shape also needs to make it unique on the display and clearly distinguishable from other icons.
Color[ edit ] The icon needs to be colorful enough to easily pick out on the display screen, and contrast well with any background. With the increasing ability to customize the desktop, it is important for the icon itself to display in a standard color which cannot be modified, retaining its characteristic appearance for immediate recognition by the user. Through color it should also provide some visual indicator as to the icon state; activated, available or currently not accessible "greyed out".
Size and scalability[ edit ] The standard icon is generally the size of an adult thumb, enabling both easy visual recognition and use in a touchscreen device.
For individual devices the display size correlates directly to the size of the screen real estate and the resolution of the display.
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Because they are used in multiple locations on the screen, the design must remain recognizable at the smallest size, for use in a directory tree or title bar, while retaining an attractive shape in the larger sizes. In addition to scaling, it may be necessary to remove visual details or simplify the subject between discrete sizes.
Larger icons serve also as part of the accessibility features for the visually impaired on many computer systems. The width and height of the icon are the same aspect ratio in almost all areas of traditional use.
Motion[ edit ] Icons can also be augmented with iconographic motion - geometric manipulations applied to a graphical element over time, for example, a scale, rotation, or other deformation.
One example is when application icons "wobble" in iOS to convey to the user they are able to be repositioned by being dragged. This is different from an icon with animated graphics, such as a Throbber. In contrast to static icons and icons with animated graphics, kinetic behaviors do not alter the visual content of an element whereas fades, blurs, tints, and addition of new graphics, such as badges, exclusively alter an icon's pixels.
Stated differently, pixels in an icon can be moved, rotated, stretched, and so on - but not altered or added to. Research has shown iconographic motion can act as a powerful and reliable visual cue, a critical property for icons to embody. For products which are targeting the international marketplace, the primary design consideration is that the icon is non-verbal; localizing text in icons is costly and time-consuming.
Cultural context[ edit ] Beyond text, there are other design elements which can be dependent upon the cultural context for interpretation.
These include color, numbers, symbols, body parts and hand gestures. Each of these elements needs to be evaluated for their meaning and relevance across all markets targeted by the product. However each of these related graphical devices differs in one way or another from the standard computer icon. Windows[ edit ] The graphical windows on the computer screen share some of the visual and functional characteristics of the computer icon.
Windows can be minimized to an icon format to serve as a hyperlink to the window itself. Multiple windows can be open and even overlapping on the screen. However where the icon provides a single button to initiate some function, the principal function of the window is a workspace, which can be minimized to an icon hyperlink when not in use.
These are graphical controls which are used across computer systems and can be intuitively manipulated by the user even in a new context because the user recognises them from having seen them in a more familiar context.
Examples of these control widgets are scroll bars, sliders, listboxes and buttons used in many programs. Using these widgets, a user is able to define and manipulate the data and the display for the software program they are working with. The first set of computer widgets was originally developed for the Xerox Alto. Now they are commonly bundled in widget toolkits and distributed as part of a development package. These control widgets are standardized pictograms used in the graphical interface, they offer an expanded set of user functionalities beyond the hyperlink function of computer icons.
The smiley, and by extension other emoticons , are used in computer text to convey information in a non-verbal binary shorthand, frequently involving the emotional context of the message. These icons were first developed for computers in the s as a response to the limited storage and transmission bandwidth used in electronic messaging. Since then they have become both abundant and more sophisticated in their keyboard representations of varying emotions.
They have developed from keyboard character combinations into real icons. They are widely used in all forms of electronic communications, always with the goal of adding context to the verbal content of the message. In adding an emotional overlay to the text, they have also enabled electronic messages to substitute for and frequently supplant voice-to-voice messaging. These emoticons are very different from the icon hyperlinks described above. They do not serve as links, are not part of any system function or computer software.
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Instead they are part of the communication language of users across systems. For these computer icons, customization and modifications are not only possible but in fact expected of the user. Although they can be customized, these text hyperlinks generally share a standardized recognizable format, blue text with underlining. Hyperlinks differ from the functional computer icons in that they are normally embedded in text, whereas icons are displayed as stand-alone on the screen real estate. My apologies to anyone who is not listed below and should have been.
Their contribution to the project cannot be overstated. I was also fortunate to receive detailed analysis from the talented Jennifer Lee and beyond-the-call-of-duty proofreading and good advice from Bob Lappan.
Special thanks are also due to the magnificent and magnanimous Will Eisner who offered many words of encouragement and excellent advice In the project's later stages. Will Eisner's work has been an inspiration to me, and to thousands of artists, for many years. Here's the second. I COUldn't have done it without you, wln.
I'm deeply indebted to all of the friends and family who offered their thoughts on the manuscript as it was being prepared. Among this long list are Holly Ratalia. Alice Harrigan, Carol aataua. Thanks also to the numerous professionals who have lent their support and.
I'm particularly indebted to Jim Valentino, Dave Sim and Keith Giffen who used their own books as a forum on my behall. In the retail sector, my thanks to the generous members of the Direct Une Group, to Ihe many stores which played host during our first tour and especially to the Mighty Moondog himself, Gary Colobuono.
Thank you to the legion of journalists In print, radio and television who have been able to talk about this book without quoting sound effects from the old Batman TV show; especially Calvin Reid and the whole gang at PW.
Early influences on the ideas in this book are harder to trace, but no less important. Kurt Busiek introduced me to comics tong ago and was my best guide for many years. Art Spiegelman, like Eisner, offered me a role-model for serious inquiry into comics as an art-form and, in his short comicsessay "Cracking Jokes.
Cla "'. In no. Com"" 3S.
SUT tl? Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. First HarperPerennial edition published ISBN X pbk. Thanks also to the numerous professionals who have lent their support and endorsements to the project. Thank you to the legion of journalists In print, radio and television who have been able to talk about this book without quoting sound effects from the old Batman TV show; especially Calvin Reid and the whole gang at PW Early influences on the ideas in this book are harder to trace, but no less important.
Without Kevin Eastman this book might have never seen the light of day.Although they can be customized, these text hyperlinks generally share a standardized recognizable format, blue text with underlining. Let's take tomorrow My apologies to anyone who is not listed below and should have been.
Hyperlinks differ from the functional computer icons in that they are normally embedded in text, whereas icons are displayed as stand-alone on the screen real estate. Carter, comp. ICO for Windows and web pages or. To regulate the use of these brand icons, they are trademark registered and are considered part of the company intellectual property. I'm particularly indebted to Jim Valentino, Dave Sim and Keith Giffen who used their own books as a forum on my behall.
Ultimately, Batman was killed when Nash, now psychotic and believing himself to be the Riddler, shoots Batman during a hostage incident. And without you, Ivy, it wouldn't have been much fun.
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